Chapter 7: Software Engineering Management
- 1 Initiation and Scope Definition
- 2 Software Project Planning
- 3 Software Project Enactment
- 4 Review and Evaluation
- 5 Closure
- 6 Software Engineering Measurement
- 7 Software Engineering Management Tools
- PMBOK® Guide
- Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
- Software Development Life Cycle
- Software Engineering Management
- Software Quality Assurance
- Software Extension to the PMBOK® Guide
- Work Breakdown Structure
Software engineering management can be defined as the application of management activities—planning, coordinating, measuring, monitoring, controlling, and reporting1—to ensure that software products and software engineering services are delivered efficiently, effectively, and to the benefit of stakeholders. The related discipline of management is an important element of all the knowledge areas (KAs), but it is of course more relevant to this KA than to other KAs. Measurement is also an important aspect of all KAs; the topic of measurement programs is presented in this KA.
In one sense, it should be possible to manage a software engineering project in the same way other complex endeavors are managed. However, there are aspects specific to software projects and software life cycle processes that complicate effective management, including these:
- Clients often don’t know what is needed or what is feasible.
- Clients often lack appreciation for the complexities inherent in software engineering, particularly regarding the impact of changing requirements.
- It is likely that increased understanding and changing conditions will generate new or changed software requirements.
- As a result of changing requirements, software is often built using an iterative process rather than as a sequence of closed tasks.
- Software engineering necessarily incorporates creativity and discipline. Maintaining an appropriate balance between the two is sometimes difficult.
- The degree of novelty and complexity is often high.
- There is often a rapid rate of change in the underlying technology.
Software engineering management activities occur at three levels: organizational and infrastructure management, project management, and management of the measurement program. The last two are covered in detail in this KA description. However, this is not to diminish the importance of organizational and infrastructure management issues. It is generally agreed that software organizational engineering managers should be conversant with the project management and software measurement knowledge described in this KA. They should also possess some target domain knowledge. Likewise, it is also helpful if managers of complex projects and programs in which software is a component of the system architecture are aware of the differences that software processes introduce into project management and project measurement.
Other aspects of organizational management exert an impact on software engineering (for example, organizational policies and procedures that provide the framework in which software engineering projects are undertaken). These policies and procedures may need to be adjusted by the requirements for effective software development and maintenance. In addition, a number of policies specific to software engineering may need to be in place or established for effective management of software engineering at the organizational level. For example, policies are usually necessary to establish specific organization-wide processes or procedures for software engineering tasks such as software design, software construction, estimating, monitoring, and reporting. Such policies are important for effective long-term management of software engineering projects across an organization (for example, establishing a consistent basis by which to analyze past project performance and implement improvements).
Another important aspect of organizational management is personnel management policies and procedures for hiring, training, and mentoring personnel for career development, not only at the project level, but also to the longer-term success of an organization. Software engineering personnel may present unique training or personnel management challenges (for example, maintaining currency in a context where the underlying technology undergoes rapid and continuous change).
Communication management is also often mentioned as an overlooked but important aspect of the performance of individuals in a field where precise understanding of user needs, software requirements, and software designs is necessary. Furthermore, portfolio management, which provides an overall view, not only of software currently under development in various projects and programs (integrated projects), but also of software planned and currently in use in an organization, is desirable. Also, software reuse is a key factor in maintaining and improving productivity and competitiveness. Effective reuse requires a strategic vision that reflects the advantages and disadvantages of reuse.
In addition to understanding the aspects of management that are uniquely influenced by software projects, software engineers should have some knowledge of the more general aspects of management that are discussed in this KA (even in the first few years after graduation).
Attributes of organizational culture and behavior, plus management of other functional areas of the enterprise, have an influence, albeit indirectly, on an organization’s software engineering processes.
Extensive information concerning software project management can be found in the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) and the Software Extension to the PMBOK® Guide (SWX)  . Each of these guides includes ten project management KAs: project integration management, project scope management, project time management, project cost management, project quality management, project human resource management, project communications management, project risk management, project procurement management, and project stakeholder management. Each KA has direct relevance to this Software Engineering Management KA.
Additional information is also provided in the other references and further readings for this KA.
This Software Engineering Management KA consists of the software project management processes in the first five topics in Figure 7.1 (Initiation and Scope Definition, Software Project Planning, Software Project Enactment, Review and Evaluation, Closure), plus Software Engineering Measurement in the sixth topic and Software Engineering Management Tools in the seventh topic. While project management and measurement management are often regarded as being separate, and indeed each does possess many unique attributes, the close relationship has led to combined treatment in this KA.
Unfortunately, a common perception of the software industry is that software products are delivered late, over budget, of poor quality, and with incomplete functionality. Measurement-informed management—a basic principle of any true engineering discipline (see Measurement in the Engineering Foundations KA)—can help improve the perception and the reality. In essence, management without measurement (qualitative and quantitative) suggests a lack of discipline, and measurement without management suggests a lack of purpose or context. Effective management requires a combination of both measurement and experience.
The following working definitions are adopted here:
- Management is a system of processes and controls required to achieve the strategic objectives set by the organization.
- Measurement refers to the assignment of values and labels to software engineering work products, processes, and resources plus the models that are derived from them, whether these models are developed using statistical
or other techniques [3* , c7, c8].
The software engineering project management sections in this KA make extensive use of the software engineering measurement section.
This KA is closely related to others in the SWEBOK Guide, and reading the following KA descriptions in conjunction with this one will be particularly helpful:
- The Engineering Foundations KA describes some general concepts of measurement that are directly applicable to the Software Engineering
Measurement section of this KA. In addition, the concepts and techniques presented in the Statistical Analysis section of the Engineering Foundations KA apply directly to many topics in this KA.
- The Software Requirements KA describes some of the activities that should be performed during the Initiation and Scope definition phase of the project.
- The Software Configuration Management KA deals with identification, control, status accounting, and auditing of software configurations
along with software release management and delivery and software configuration management tools.
- The Software Engineering Process KA describes software life cycle models and the relationships between processes and work products.
- The Software Quality KA emphasizes quality as a goal of management and as an aim of many software engineering activities.
- The Software Engineering Economics KA discusses how to make software-related decisions in a business context.
Because most software development life cycle models require similar activities that may be executed in different ways, the breakdown of topics is activity-based. That breakdown is shown in Figure 7.1. The elements of the top-level breakdown shown in that figure are the activities that are usually performed when a software development project is being managed, independent of the software development life cycle model (see Software Life Cycle Models in the Software Engineering Process KA) that has been chosen for a specific project. There is no intent in this breakdown to recommend a specific life cycle model. The breakdown implies only what happens and does not imply when, how, or how many times each activity occurs. The seven topics are:
- Initiation and Scope Definition, which deal with the decision to embark on a software engineering project;
- Software Project Planning, which addresses the activities undertaken to prepare for a successful software engineering project from the management perspective;
- Software Project Enactment, which deals with generally accepted software engineering management activities that occur during the execution of a software engineering project;
- Review and Evaluation, which deal with ensuring that technical, schedule, cost, and quality engineering activities are satisfactory;
- Closure, which addresses the activities accomplished to complete a project;
- Software Engineering Measurement, which deals with the effective development and implementation of measurement programs insoftware engineering organizations;
- Software Engineering Management Tools, which describes the selection and use of tools for managing a software engineering project.
1 Initiation and Scope Definition
The focus of these activities is on effective determination of software requirements using various elicitation methods and the assessment of project feasibility from a variety of standpoints. Once project feasibility has been established, the remaining tasks within this section are the specification of requirements and selection of the processes for revision and review of requirements.
1.1 Determination and Negotiation of Requirements
Determining and negotiating requirements set the visible boundaries for the set of tasks being undertaken (see the Software Requirements KA). Activities include requirements elicitation, analysis, specification, and validation. Methods and techniques should be selected and applied, taking into account the various stakeholder perspectives. This leads to the determination of project scope in order to meet objectives and satisfy constraints.
1.2 Feasibility Analysis
The purpose of feasibility analysis is to develop a clear description of project objectives and evaluate alternative approaches in order to determine whether the proposed project is the best alternative given the constraints of technology, resources, finances, and social/political considerations. An initial project and product scope statement, project deliverables, project duration constraints, and an estimate of resources needed should be prepared.
Resources include a sufficient number of people who have the needed skills, facilities, infrastructure, and support (either internally or externally). Feasibility analysis often requires approximate estimations of effort and cost based on appropriate methods (see section 2.3, Effort, Schedule, and Cost Estimation).
1.3 Process for the Review and Revision of Requirements
Given the inevitability of change, stakeholders should agree on the means by which requirements and scope are to be reviewed and revised (for example, change management procedures, iterative cycle retrospectives). This clearly implies that scope and requirements will not be “set in stone” but can and should be revisited at predetermined points as the project unfolds (for example, at the time when backlog priorities are created or at milestone reviews). If changes are accepted, then some form of traceability analysis and risk analysis should be used to ascertain the impact of those changes (see section 2.5, Risk Management, and Software Configuration Control in the Software Configuration Management KA).
A managed-change approach can also form the basis for evaluation of success during closure of an incremental cycle or an entire project, based on changes that have occurred along the way (see topic 5, Closure).
2 Software Project Planning
The first step in software project planning should be selection of an appropriate software development life cycle model and perhaps tailoring it based on project scope, software requirements, and a risk assessment. Other factors to be considered include the nature of the application domain, functional and technical complexity, and software quality requirements (see Software Quality Requirements in the Software Quality KA).
In all SDLCs, risk assessment should be an element of initial project planning, and the “risk profile” of the project should be discussed and accepted by all relevant stakeholders. Software quality management processes (see Software Quality Management Processes in the Software Quality KA) should be determined as part of the planning process and result in procedures and responsibilities for software quality assurance, verification and validation, reviews, and audits (see the Software Quality KA). Processes and responsibilities for ongoing review and revision of the project plan and related plans should also be clearly stated and agreed upon.
2.1 Process Planning
Software development life cycle (SDLC) models span a continuum from predictive to adaptive (see Software Life Cycle Models in the Software Engineering Process KA). Predictive SDLCs are characterized by development of detailed software requirements, detailed project planning, and minimal planning for iteration among development phases. Adaptive SDLCs are designed to accommodate emergent software requirements and iterative adjustment of plans. A highly predictive SDLC executes the first five processes listed in Figure 7.1 in a linear sequence with revisions to earlier phases only as necessary. Adaptive SDLCs are characterized by iterative development cycles. SDLCs in the mid-range of the SDLC continuum produce increments of functionality on either a preplanned schedule (on the predictive side of the continuum) or as the products of frequently updated development cycles (on the adaptive side of the continuum).
Well-known SDLCs include the waterfall, incremental, and spiral models plus various forms of agile software development  [3*, c2].
Relevant methods (see the Software Engineering Models and Methods KA) and tools should be selected as part of planning. Automated tools that will be used throughout the project should also be planned for and acquired. Tools may include tools for project scheduling, software requirements, software design, software construction, software maintenance, software configuration management, software engineering process, software quality, and others. While many of these tools should be selected based primarily on the technical considerations discussed in other KAs, some of them are closely related to the management considerations discussed in this chapter.
2.2 Determine Deliverables
The work product(s) of each project activity (for example, software architecture design documents, inspection reports, tested software) should be identified and characterized. Opportunities to reuse software components from previous projects or to utilize off-the-shelf software products should be evaluated. Procurement of software and use of third parties to develop deliverables should be planned and suppliers selected (see section 3.2, Software Acquisition and Supplier Contract Management).
2.3 Effort, Schedule, and Cost Estimation
The estimated range of effort required for a project, or parts of a project, can be determined using a calibrated estimation model based on historical size and effort data (when available) and other relevant methods such as expert judgment and analogy. Task dependencies can be established and potential opportunities for completing tasks concurrently and sequentially can be identified and documented using a Gantt chart, for example. For predictive SDLC projects, the expected schedule of tasks with projected start times, durations, and end times is typically produced during planning. For adaptive SDLC projects, an overall estimate of effort and schedule is typically developed from the initial understanding of the requirements, or, alternatively, constraints on overall effort and schedule may be specified and used to determine an initial estimate of the number of iterative cycles and estimates of effort and other resources allocated to each cycle.
Resource requirements (for example, people and tools) can be translated into cost estimates. Initial estimation of effort, schedule, and cost is an iterative activity that should be negotiated and revised among affected stakeholders until consensus is reached on resources and time available for project completion.
2.4 Resource Allocation
Equipment, facilities, and people should be allocated to the identified tasks, including the allocation of responsibilities for completion of various elements of a project and the overall project. A matrix that shows who is responsible for, accountable for, consulted about, and informed about each of the tasks can be used. Resource allocation is based on, and constrained by, the availability of resources and their optimal use, as well as by issues relating to personnel (for example, productivity of individuals and teams, team dynamics, and team structures).
2.5 Risk Management
Risk and uncertainty are related but distinct concepts. Uncertainty results from lack of information. Risk is characterized by the probability of an event that will result in a negative impact plus a characterization of the negative impact on a project. Risk is often the result of uncertainty. The converse of risk is opportunity, which is characterized by the probability that an event having a positive outcome might occur.
Risk management entails identification of risk factors and analysis of the probability and potential impact of each risk factor, prioritization of risk factors, and development of risk mitigation strategies to reduce the probability and minimize the negative impact if a risk factor becomes a problem. Risk assessment methods (for example, expert judgment, historical data, decision trees, and process simulations) can sometimes be used in order to identify and evaluate risk factors.
Project abandonment conditions can also be determined at this point in discussion with all relevant stakeholders. Software-unique aspects of risk, such as software engineers’ tendency to add unneeded features, or the risks related to software’s intangible nature, can influence risk management of a software project. Particular attention should be paid to the management of risks related to software quality requirements such as safety or security (see the Software Quality KA). Risk management should be done not only at the beginning of a project, but also at periodic intervals throughout the project life cycle.
2.6 Quality Management
Software quality requirements should be identified, perhaps in both quantitative and qualitative terms, for a software project and the associated work products. Thresholds for acceptable quality measurements should be set for each software quality requirement based on stakeholder needs and expectations. Procedures concerned with ongoing Software Quality Assurance (SQA) and quality improvement throughout the development process, and for verification and validation of the deliverable software product, should also be specified during quality planning (for example, technical reviews and inspections or demonstrations of completed functionality; see the Software Quality KA).
2.7 Plan Management
For software projects, where change is an expectation, plans should be managed. Managing the project plan should thus be planned. Plans and processes selected for software development should be systematically monitored, reviewed, reported, and, when appropriate, revised. Plans associated with supporting processes (for example, documentation, software configuration management, and problem resolution) also should be managed. Reporting, monitoring, and controlling a project should fit within the selected SDLC and the realities of the project; plans should account for the various artifacts that will be used to manage the project.
3 Software Project Enactment
During software project enactment (also known as project execution) plans are implemented and the processes embodied in the plans are enacted. Throughout, there should be a focus on adherence to the selected SDLC processes, with an overriding expectation that adherence will lead to the successful satisfaction of stakeholder requirements and achievement of the project’s objectives. Fundamental to enactment are the ongoing management activities of monitoring, controlling, and reporting.
3.1 Implementation of Plans
Project activities should be undertaken in accordance with the project plan and supporting plans. Resources (for example, personnel, technology, and funding) are utilized and work products (for example, software design, software code, and software test cases) are generated.
3.2 Software Acquisition and Supplier Contract Management
Software acquisition and supplier contract management is concerned with issues involved in contracting with customers of the software development organization who acquire the deliverable work products and with suppliers who supply products or services to the software engineering organization.
This may involve selection of appropriate kinds of contracts, such as fixed price, time and materials, cost plus fixed fee, or cost plus incentive fee. Agreements with customers and suppliers typically specify the scope of work and the deliverables and include clauses such as penalties for late delivery or nondelivery and intellectual property agreements that specify what the supplier or suppliers are providing and what the acquirer is paying for, plus what will be delivered to and owned by the acquirer. For software being developed by suppliers (both internal to or external to the software development organization), agreements commonly indicate software quality requirements for acceptance of the delivered software.
After the agreement has been put in place, execution of the project in compliance with the terms of the agreement should be managed (see chapter 12 of SWX, Software Procurement Management, for more information on this topic ).
3.3 Implementation of Measurement Process
The measurement process should be enacted during the software project to ensure that relevant and useful data are collected (see sections 6.2, Plan the Measurement Process, and 6.3, Perform the Measurement Process).
3.4 Monitor Process
Adherence to the project plan and related plans should be assessed continually and at predetermined intervals. Also, outputs and completion criteria for each task should be assessed. Deliverables should be evaluated in terms of their required characteristics (for example, via inspections or by demonstrating working functionality). Effort expenditure, schedule adherence, and costs to date should be analyzed, and resource usage examined. The project risk profile (see section 2.5, Risk Management) should be revisited, and adherence to software quality requirements evaluated (see Software Quality Requirements in the Software Quality KA).
Measurement data should be analyzed (see Statistical Analysis in the Engineering Foundations KA). Variance analysis based on the deviation of actual from expected outcomes and values should be determined. This may include cost overruns, schedule slippage, or other similar measures. Outlier identification and analysis of quality and other measurement data should be performed (for example, defect analysis; see Software Quality Measurement in the Software Quality KA). Risk exposures should be recalculated (see section 2.5, Risk Management). These activities can enable problem detection and exception identification based on thresholds that have been exceeded. Outcomes should be reported when thresholds have been exceeded, or as necessary.
3.5 Control Process
The outcomes of project monitoring activities provide the basis on which decisions can be made. Where appropriate, and when the probability and impact of risk factors are understood, changes can be made to the project. This may take the form of corrective action (for example, retesting certain software components); it may involve incorporating additional actions (for example, deciding to use prototyping to assist in software requirements validation; see Prototyping in the Software Requirements KA); and/or it may entail revision of the project plan and other project documents (for example, the software requirements specification) to accommodate unanticipated events and their implications.
In some instances, the control process may lead to abandonment of the project. In all cases, software configuration control and software configuration management procedures should be adhered to (see the Software Configuration Management KA), decisions should be documented and communicated to all relevant parties, plans should be revisited and revised when necessary, and relevant data recorded (see section 6.3, Perform the Measurement Process).
At specified and agreed-upon times, progress to date should be reported—both within the organization (for example, to a project steering committee) and to external stakeholders (for example, clients or users). Reports should focus on the information needs of the target audience as opposed to the detailed status reporting within the project team.
4 Review and Evaluation
At prespecified times and as needed, overall progress towards achievement of the stated objectives and satisfaction of stakeholder (user and customer) requirements should be evaluated. Similarly, assessments of the effectiveness of the software process, the personnel involved, and the tools and methods employed should also be undertaken regularly and as determined by circumstances.
4.1 Determining Satisfaction of Requirements
Because achieving stakeholder satisfaction is a principal goal of the software engineering manager, progress towards this goal should be assessed periodically. Progress should be assessed on achievement of major project milestones (for example, completion of software design architecture or completion of a software technical review), or upon completion of an iterative development cycle that results in a product increment. Variances from software requirements should be identified and appropriate actions should be taken.
As in the control process activity above (see section 3.5, Control Process), software configuration control and software configuration management procedures should be followed (see the Software Configuration Management KA), decisions documented and communicated to all relevant parties, plans revisited and revised where necessary, and relevant data recorded (see section 6.3, Perform the Measurement Process).
4.2 Reviewing and Evaluating Performance
Periodic performance reviews for project personnel can provide insights as to the likelihood of adherence to plans and processes as well as possible areas of difficulty (for example, team member conflicts). The various methods, tools, and techniques employed should be evaluated for their effectiveness and appropriateness, and the process being used by the project should also be systematically and periodically assessed for relevance, utility, and efficacy in the project context. Where appropriate, changes should be made and managed.
An entire project, a major phase of a project, or an iterative development cycle reaches closure when all the plans and processes have been enacted and completed. The criteria for project, phase, or iteration success should be evaluated. Once closure is established, archival, retrospective, and process improvement activities can be performed.
5.1 Determining Closure
Closure occurs when the specified tasks for a project, a phase, or an iteration have been completed and satisfactory achievement of the completion criteria has been confirmed. Software requirements can be confirmed as satisfied or not, and the degree of achieving the objectives can be determined. Closure processes should involve relevant stakeholders and result in documentation of relevant stakeholders’ acceptance; any known problems should be documented.
5.2 Closure Activities
After closure has been confirmed, archiving of project materials should be accomplished in accordance with stakeholder agreed-upon methods, location, and duration—possibly including destruction of sensitive information, software, and the medium on which copies are resident. The organization’s measurement database should be updated with relevant project data. A project, phase, or iteration retrospective analysis should be undertaken so that issues, problems, risks, and opportunities encountered can be analyzed (see topic 4, Review and Evaluation). Lessons learned should be drawn from the project and fed into organizational learning and improvement endeavors.
6 Software Engineering Measurement
The importance of measurement and its role in better management and engineering practices is widely acknowledged (see Measurement in the Engineering Foundations KA). Effective measurement has become one of the cornerstones of organizational maturity. Measurement can be applied to organizations, projects, processes, and work products. In this section the focus is on the application of measurement at the levels of projects, processes, and work products.
This section follows the IEEE 15939:2008 standard , which describes a process to define the activities and tasks necessary to implement a software measurement process. The standard also includes a measurement information model.
6.1 Establish and Sustain Measurement Commitment
- Requirements for measurement. Each measurement endeavor should be guided by
organizational objectives and driven by a set of measurement requirements established by the organization and the project (for example, an organizational objective might be “first-to-market with new products”).
- Scope of measurement. The organizational unit to which each measurement requirement is to be applied should be established. This may consist of a functional area, a single project, a single site, or an entire enterprise. The temporal scope of the measurement effort should also be considered because
time series of some measurements may be required; for example, to calibrate estimation models (see section 2.3, Effort, Schedule, and Cost Estimation).
- Team commitment to measurement. The commitment should be formally established, communicated, and supported by resources (see next item).
- Resources for measurement. An organization’s commitment to measurement is an
essential factor for success, as evidenced by the assignment of resources for implementing the measurement process. Assigning resources includes allocation of responsibility for the various tasks of the measurement process (such as analyst and librarian). Adequate funding, training, tools, and support to conduct the process should also be allocated.
6.2 Plan the Measurement Process
- Characterize the organizational unit. The organizational unit provides the context for measurement, so the organizational context should be made explicit, including the constraints that the organization imposes on the measurement process. The characterization can be stated in terms of organizational
processes, application domains, technology, organizational interfaces, and organizational structure.
- Identify information needs. Information needs are based on the goals, constraints, risks, and problems of the organizational unit. They may be derived from business, organizational, regulatory, and/or product
objectives. They should be identified and prioritized. Then a subset of objectives to be addressed can be selected, documented, communicated, and reviewed by stakeholders.
- Select measures. Candidate measures should be selected, with clear links to the information needs. Measures should be selected based on the priorities of the information needs and other criteria such as cost of collection,
degree of process disruption during collection, ease of obtaining accurate, consistent data, and ease of analysis and reporting. Because internal quality characteristics (see Models and Quality Characteristics in the Software Quality KA) are often not contained in the contractually binding software requirements, it is important to consider measuring the internal quality of the software to provide an early indicator of potential issues that may impact external stakeholders.
- Define data collection, analysis, and reporting procedures. This encompasses collection procedures and schedules, storage, verification, analysis, reporting, and configuration management of data.
- Select criteria for evaluating the information products. Criteria for evaluation are influenced by the technical and business objectives of the organizational unit. Information products include those associated with the
product being produced, as well as those associated with the processes being used to manage and measure the project.
- Provide resources for measurement tasks. The measurement plan should be reviewed and approved by the appropriate stakeholders to include all data collection procedures; storage, analysis, and reporting procedures; evaluation
criteria; schedules; and responsibilities. Criteria for reviewing these artifacts should have been established at the organizational-unit level or higher and should be used as the basis for these reviews. Such criteria should take into consideration previous experience, availability of resources, and potential disruptions to projects when changes from current practices are proposed. Approval demonstrates commitment to the measurement process.
- Identify resources to be made available for implementing the planned and approved measurement tasks. Resource availability may be staged in cases where changes are to be piloted before widespread deployment. Consideration should be paid to the resources necessary for successful deployment of new
procedures or measures.
- Acquire and deploy supporting technologies. This includes evaluation of available supporting technologies, selection of the most appropriate
technologies, acquisition of those technologies, and deployment of those technologies.
6.3 Perform the Measurement Process
- Integrate measurement procedures with relevant software processes. The measurementprocedures, such as data collection, should be integrated into the software processes they are measuring. This may involve changing
current software processes to accommodate data collection or generation activities. It may also involve analysis of current software processes to minimize additional effort and evaluation of the effect on employees to ensure that the measurement procedures will be accepted. Morale issues and other human factors should be considered. In addition, the measurement procedures should be communicated to those providing the data. Training and support may also need to be provided. Data analysis and reporting procedures are typically integrated into organizational and/or project processes in a similar manner.
- Collect data. Data should be collected, verified, and stored. Collection can sometimes be automated by using software engineering management tools (see topic 7, Software Engineering Management Tools) to analyze data and develop reports. Data may be aggregated, transformed, or recoded as part of the analysis process, using a degree of rigor appropriate to the nature of the data
and the information needs. The results of this analysis are typically indicators such as graphs, numbers, or other indications that will be interpreted, resulting in conclusions and recommendations to be presented to stakeholders (see Statistical Analysis in the Engineering Foundations KA). The results and conclusions are usually reviewed, using a process defined by the organization (which may be formal or informal). Data providers and measurement users should participate in reviewing the data to ensure that they are meaningful and accurate and that they can result in reasonable actions.
- Communicate results. Information products should be documented and communicated to users and stakeholders.
6.4 Evaluate Measurement
- Evaluate information products and the measurement process against specified evaluation criteria and determine strengths and weaknesses of the information products or process, respectively. Evaluation may be performed by an internal process or an external audit; it should include feedback from measurement users. Lessons learned should be recorded in an appropriate database.
- Identify potential improvements. Such improvements may be changes in the format of indicators, changes in units measured, or reclassification of measurement categories. The costs and benefits of potential improvements should be determined and appropriate improvement actions should be reported.
- Communicate proposed improvements to the measurement process owner and stakeholders for review and approval. Also, lack of potential improvements should be communicated if the analysis fails to identify any improvements.
7 Software Engineering Management Tools
Software engineering management tools are often used to provide visibility and control of software engineering management processes. Some tools are automated while others are manually implemented. There has been a recent trend towards the use of integrated suites of software engineering tools that are used throughout a project to plan, collect and record, monitor and control, and report project and product information. Tools can be divided into the following categories:
Project Planning and Tracking Tools. Project planning and tracking tools can be used to estimate project effort and cost and to prepare project schedules. Some projects use automated estimation tools that accept as input the estimated size and other characteristics of a software product and produce estimates of the required total effort, schedule, and cost. Planning tools also include automated scheduling tools that analyze the tasks within a work breakdown structure, their estimated durations, their precedence relationships, and the resources assigned to each task to produce a schedule in the form of a Gantt chart.
Tracking tools can be used to track project milestones, regularly scheduled project status meetings, scheduled iteration cycles, product demonstrations, and/or action items.
Risk Management Tools. Risk management tools (see section 2.5, Risk Management) can be used to track risk identification, estimation, and monitoring. These tools include the use of approaches such as simulation or decision trees to analyze the effect of costs versus payoffs and subjective estimates of the probabilities of risk events. Monte Carlo simulation tools can be used to produce probability distributions of effort, schedule, and risk by combining multiple input probability distributions in an algorithmic manner.
Communications Tools. Communication tools can assist in providing timely and consistent information to relevant stakeholders involved in a project. These tools can include things like email notifications and broadcasts to team members and stakeholders. They also include communication of minutes from regularly scheduled project meetings, daily stand-up meetings, plus charts showing progress, backlogs, and maintenance request resolutions.
Measurement Tools. Measurement tools support activities related to the software measurement program (see topic 6, Software Engineering Measurement). There are few completely automated tools in this category. Measurement tools used to gather, analyze, and report project measurement data may be based on spreadsheets developed by project team members or organizational employees.
Stephen P. Berczuk and Brad Appleton, Software Configuration Management Patterns: Effective Teamwork, Practical Integration .
This book expresses useful SCM practices and strategies as patterns. The patterns can be implemented using various tools, but they are expressed in a tool-agnostic fashion.
“CMMI for Development,” Version 1.3, pp. 137–147 .
This model presents a collection of best practices to help software development organizations improve their processes. At maturity level 2, it suggests configuration management activities.
 ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010 Systems and Software Engineering—Vocabulary, ISO/IEC/IEEE, 2010.
 IEEE Std. 828-2012, Standard forConfiguration Management in Systems and Software Engineering, IEEE, 2012.
 A.M.J Hass, Configuration Management
Principles and Practices, 1st ed., Addison Wesley, 2003.
 I. Sommerville, Software Engineering, 9th ed., 9th ed., Addison Wesley, 2011.
 S.P. Berczuk and B. Appleton, Software Configuration Management Patterns: Effective Teamwork, Practical Integration, Addison Wesley Professional, 2003.
 CMMI Product Team, "CMMI for Development, Version 1.3", Software Engineering Institute, 2010, http://resources.sei.cmu.edu/library/asset-view.cfm?assetID=9661.